Abstract 4609: Evidence of Need for a More Comprehensive Approach to Dietary Self-Management for Patients with Heart Failure and Diabetes
Background: Type 2 diabetes (DM) is a common comorbidity in patients with heart failure (HF). Nutritional management is a key strategy in achieving blood glucose control and decreasing the risk of microvascular complications. The ability of patients with HF to nutritionally self-manage multiple comorbidities is unknown.
Purpose: To compare nutritional intake of a group of patients with HF and DM with a group without DM.
Methods: A total of 174 patients (66 with DM, age 60± 12 yrs, 35% female, 57% NYHA class III/IV) recruited from HF clinics completed detailed 4-day food diaries that were reviewed by a registered dietitian. Nutrition Data System software was used to determine carbohydrate (total and subtype), protein, fat, cholesterol, and sodium intake. Fasting blood glucose was obtained on a subset of 123 patients. Between-group comparisons were made using independent sample t-tests.
Results: Patients with DM consumed a lower percentage of calories from carbohydrate (44% vs. 49%, p=.003) and a greater percentage of calories from protein (19% vs. 16%, p<.001) and fat (38% vs. 35%, p=.049) compared to patients without DM. With respect to carbohydrate subtypes, patients with DM consumed 30% less sucrose (29g vs. 42g, p<.001) and 39% less fructose (14g vs. 23g, p<.001) than patients without DM, but a similar amount of starch (93g vs. 95g). There were no differences in sodium (3472mg vs. 3209mg), cholesterol (321mg vs. 285mg) or saturated fat (12% vs. 11% of kcal) intake between groups with and without DM. A total of 60% of patients with DM had fasting blood glucose levels >120mg/dl and 40% had a fasting levels > 140mg/dl.
Conclusions: Patients with HF and DM primarily limited dietary sugar intake, with only moderate success. Nutritional management of HF has focused on the single nutrient sodium with limited success; these data suggest that teaching for DM may be similarly focused on the single nutrient sugar. This indicates that new, more comprehensive, approaches are needed to help patients meet the challenge of nutritionally managing multiple comorbidities.
This research has received full or partial funding support from the American Heart Association, AHA Great Rivers Affiliate (Delaware, Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania & West Virginia).