Abstract 2942: High Mortality Rates are Associated with Withdrawal of Beta Blockers and Ace Inhibitors in Chemotherapy-Induced Heart Failure
Beta blockers (BB) and ACE inhibitors (ACE) are recommended for management of left ventricular (LV)dysfunction including patients with chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy (CCM). There is a scarcity of data for the long term requirement of these medications in cancer patients, and the effect of their withdrawal after improvement of LV function is unknown. We report a cohort study involving patients with CCM on BB and ACE who underwent withdrawal of these medications and their outcome.
Methods: In a cohort of patients with CCM stabilized on BB (commonly carvedilol) and ACE, sixteen patients were identified that had therapy withdrawn and then presented with acute heart failure. Patients resumed BB and ACE therapy and outcomes of LV function and survival were evaluated. The change in LVEF by ECHO was compared using paired t-test, with a matched control population with t-test and survivability compared and calculated using Kaplan-Meier estimates and log rank test.
Results: A total of 48 patients, case (n=16) and matched control (n=32), on maximal tolerated doses of ACE+BB, mean EF of 49.62% Upon withdrawal mean EF decreased to 30.62% (p<0.0001). Nine patients died within six months of discontinuation of therapy, three of sudden cardiac death. Reinstitution of carvedilol+ACE improved LVEF to a mean of 45% (p<0.0001).
Discussion: This study demonstrates acute deterioration in cardiac function and survival upon withdrawal of BB and ACE in patients with CCM, and a mortality of 56.25% for case patients and 28.12% for control patients. These data indicate that BB and ACE are pivotal in cancer patients with CCM and necessitates their indefinite use.