Abstract 3377: Modulation of Vessel Stability by the ELR-negative Chemokine IP-10
Angiogenesis plays a critical role in tissue development and wound repair. Regulation of the vascular tree is critical to organogenesis and neo-organogenesis. The initial vigorous vessel proliferation and arborization that occurs during tissue development and wound repair must be pruned to form mature tissue. The signals that trigger this vascular regression are still ill-defined. Mitotic endothelial cells express the CXC receptor 3 (CXCR3), which binds the ELR-negative chemokines IP-10 (CXCL10), platelet factor 4 (PF4, CXCL4), IP-9/I-TAC (CXCL11), and MIG (CXCL9), with IP-9 and IP-10 being expressed during the later remodeling phases of wound repair when vascular involution occurs. We hypothesized that not only does this signaling system limit angiogenesis, but that CXCR3 signaling also compromises endothelial cell tube integrity contributing to regression. Treatment of newly formed tubes/cords on Matrigel (in vitro) or vessels in a subcutaneous Matrigel plug (in vivo) with IP-10 in either presence or absence of VEGF caused a dissociation of the tubes and subsequent vascular involution. This followed CXCR3 induced cleavage of β3 integrin in endothelial cells. CXCR3 triggering of mu-calpain activity caused cleavage of the cytoplasmic tail of human β3 integrins at the calpain cleavage sites NPLY747 and TSTF754. IP-10 stimulation was also found to activate caspase 3, blockage of which prevented cell death but not tube dissociation. Thus, CXCR3 activation in newly formed vessels results in endothelial dissociation from matrix, followed by anoikis. This is the first direct evidence for an extracellular signaling mechanism through CXCR3 causing the dissociation of newly formed blood vessels.
This study was supported by funds from VA Medical Research Program and National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIH, USA).