Abstract 1457: IGFBP-4-Mediated Wnt Inhibition is Required for Cardiac Myogenesis
Insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins (IGFBPs) bind to and modulate the actions of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). Although some of the effects of IGFBPs appear to be independent of IGFs, the precise mechanisms of IGF-independent actions of IGFBPs are largely unknown. In this study we demonstrate that IGFBP-4 is a novel cardiogenic growth factor. IGFBP-4 enhanced cardiomyocyte differentiation of P19CL6 embryonal carcinoma cells and embryonic stem (ES) cells in vitro. Conversely, siRNA-mediated knockdown of IGFBP-4 in P19CL6 cells or ES cells attenuated cardiomyocyte differentiation, and morpholino-mediated knockdown of IGFBP-4 in Xenopus embryos resulted in severe cardiac defects and complete absence of the heart in extreme cases. We also demonstrate that the cardiogenic effect of IGFBP-4 was independent of its IGF-binding activity but was mediated by the inhibitory effect on canonical Wnt signaling. IGFBP-4 physically interacted with a Wnt receptor Frizzled 8 (Frz8) and a Wnt co-receptor low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6), and inhibited the binding of Wnt3A to Frz8 and LRP6. Moreover, the cardiogenic defects induced by IGFBP-4 knockdown both in vitro and in vivo was rescued by simultaneous inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling. Thus, IGFBP-4 is an inhibitor of the canonical Wnt signaling, and Wnt inhibition by IGFBP-4 is required for cardiogenesis. The present study provides a molecular link between IGF signaling and Wnt signaling, and suggests that IGFBP-4 may be a novel therapeutic target for heart diseases.