Abstract P22: An Impedance Threshold Device Combined with an Automated Active Compression Decompression CPR Device (LUCAS) Improves the Chances For Survival in Pigs in Cardiac Arrest
Background: By lowering intrathoracic pressure during the chest recoil phase of CPR, the impedance threshold device (ITD) increases circulation and the rate of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). This study evaluated the ITD combined with a new automated CPR device, the US version of the LUCAS, that compresses the chest and then pulls upwards with a 3 lb force.
Methods and Results: After 6 min of untreated ventricular fibrillation, anesthetized female pigs (40.0±0.7 kg) were randomized to 6 min of CPR (100 compressions/min with LUCAS and ventilation: 1.0 FiO2, tidal volume of 10ml/kg, rate 12/min) with an active (−10 cm H2O resistance) (n=12) or sham ITD (n=12), and then shocked once with 120 joules of direct current. Epinephrine (0.04 mg/kg) and more CPR and shocks were used if ROSC was not achieved.
Results (in mmHg) after 6 min of CPR with an active vs. sham ITD were: coronary perfusion pressure (PP) 20.8±1.2 vs. 21.0±0.9 (p=0.94); cerebral PP 8.8±1.0 vs. 10.0±0.9 (p=0.62); and end tidal CO2 38.1±1.5 and 37.1±1.3 (p=0.61). Peak and mean carotid artery blood flow (ml/min) was 323.9±15.2 vs. 256.6±21.1 (p=0.17) and 95.3±5.4 vs. 77.0±6.0 (p=0.22) with an active vs. sham ITD, respectively. Mean endotracheal pressures (mmHg) during chest recoil with an active vs. sham ITD were −2.0±0.5 vs. −0.2±0.2 (p<0.01). Arterial and venous blood gases were similar after 6 min of CPR between groups. ROSC, the primary survival endpoint for comparing the active vs. sham ITD, was 7/12 vs. 2/12 after 1 shock (p= 0.09), 12/12 vs. 5/12 after 2 shocks (p<0.01), and 12/12 vs. 7/12 after 3 shocks (p=0.04). With up to 14 shocks, 10/12 sham animals had a ROSC. All animals with ROSC lived for 30 min. There was no evidence of pulmonary edema or organ damage on autopsy with either ITD.
Conclusions: After 6 min of CPR, LUCAS and active ITD resulted in lower mean airway pressures during chest recoil versus controls but hemodynamic findings were similar. However, ROSC was significantly easier to achieve with an active ITD; with up to 3 shocks twice as many animals were resuscitated with an active ITD. This benefit is most likely explained by carotid blood flows that trended higher with the active ITD. These positive findings and lack of any adverse outcomes support the safety and efficacy of this device combination.