Abstract 5057: Habitual Dietary Intake of Fatty Acids in Relation to Insulin Resistance among Japanese Adults
Background: Asians including Japanese are more susceptible to glucose intolerance or type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) than Caucasians. However little is known about the effects of dietary fatty acid (FA) intake on insulin resistance (IR) in Japanese.
Objective: Our aim was to investigate associations between IR and habitual dietary intake of FAs among middle-aged Japanese adults.
Methods: We designed a cross-sectional survey of 3383 Japanese adults aged 35– 66 years. IR was measured with homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-R) and nutrient intake was estimated by a self-administered diet history questionnaire. All amounts of nutrients were energy-adjusted as the residuals from regression model.
Results: Log-transformed HOMA-R had a significant negative correlation with polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). Multivariate-adjusted regression analysis demonstrated that IR had a significant positive association with saturated fatty acid (SFA) and inverse associations with n-6 series PUFA independently of age, sex, BMI, lipid profiles, other macronutrients and lifestyle. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios of IR, defined as a top quartile of HOMA-R distribution, across the quartiles of energy-adjusted intakes were 1.0, 0.89, 0.73 and 0.57 for linoleic acid (P for trend = 0.007) and 1.0, 0.90, 0.68 and 0.61 for alpha-linolenic acid (P for trend = 0.010), respectively. Marine-derived n-3 PUFA and the ratio of n-6 to n-3 PUFA had no consistent association with IR.
Conclusions: Our cross-sectional data suggest that a modification of dietary fat intake to substitute PUFA, in particular linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid, for SFA may have a clinical efficacy to prevent IR among a Japanese population.