Abstract 3280: Differential Effects of Cholesterol Absorption Inhibition by Plant Sterol and Plant Stanol Esters on Expression of Monocytes, Lymphocytes, Endothelial Function, Atherogenesis and CNS Sterol Concentrations
Plant sterol (PSE) and plant stanol esters (PSA) are used as food supplements to reduce serum cholesterol levels. We assessed the hypothesis that PSE and PSA differentially affect blood monocytes, lymphocytes, endothelial function, atherogenesis and central nervous system (CNS) sterol concentrations. Male apoE −/− mice (n=30) were randomized to 3 different diets for 6 weeks (n=10 per group): high cholesterol (1.25%) western-type diet (WTD), WTD+2% PSE, WTD+2% PSA. Both dietary supplements reduced serum cholesterol significantly. WTD+PSE resulted in increased plant sterol serum concentrations and increased expression of pro-atherogenic monocytes (CD11b+Ly-6C), WTD+PSA increased plant stanol serum concentrations and expression of CD11b+Ly-6C lymphocytes. Despite of a significant reduction of serum cholesterol concentrations both dietary interventions resulted in endothelial dysfunction compared to WTD alone (p<0.05). Animals on WTD exhibited most pronounced atherosclerotic lesion development. WTD+PSA resulted in a significant reduction of atherosclerotic lesions compared to WTD. Atherosclerotic lesion reduction in WTD+PSE was less effective. CNS cholesterol concentrations were comparable in all groups. A diet supplementation with PSE and PSA, however, resulted in increased CNS concentrations of plant sterols (p<0.0005) and stanols (p<0.0005), respectively. Diet supplementations with PSE and PSA reduce serum cholesterol concentrations, but increase plant sterol and stanol concentrations. Increased serum concentrations of plant sterols and stanols are related to increased expressions of CD11b+Ly-6C+monocytes and CD11b+Ly-6C+lymphocytes, endothelial dysfunction and increased CNS depositions of plant sterols and stanols. Atherosclerotic lesion retardation was more pronounced in mice on a PSA diet supplementation.