Abstract 1: Statewide Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Survival Improves after Widespread Implementation of Cardiocerebral Resuscitation
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of cardiocerebral resuscitation (CCR), an alternative emergency medical services (EMS) protocol, on out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOHCA) survival in the state of Arizona. CCR, emphasizes 200 preshock chest compressions, a single defibrillator shock (when indicated) followed immediately by 200 postshock chest compressions, early intravenous epinephrine and delayed endotracheal intubation.
METHODS: The Save Hearts in Arizona Registry and Education (SHARE) program collected Utstein style data from 38 different fire departments (FDs) servicing approximately 70% of Arizona’s population. 2671 consecutive OOHCAs, of which 1847 were adult and presumed cardiac etiology were enrolled between October, 2004 and December, 2006. The CCR protocol was implemented in 11/38 (29%) FDs and the remaining FDs 27/38 (72%) utilized standard ACLS. The primary end-point was survival to hospital discharge of all cardiac arrests and for the subgroup with witnessed arrest and ventricular fibrillation (VF) on EMS arrival. Outcomes were obtained from the Office of Vital Statistics as well as local hospitals and were compared using chi square testing; alpha = 0.05.
RESULTS: 457/1847 (24.7%) patients were treated by CCR FDs and 1390/1847 (75.3%) were treated by ACLS FDs. Overall survival in the CCR group was significantly better than in the ACLS group (9.2% (42/457) vs. 3.5% (49/1390), p < 0.001). Similarly, survival for witnessed VF arrests was significantly better in the CCR group than the ACLS group (29.3% (29/99) vs. 11.1% (30/271), p < 0.001). Odds ratios were adjusted for age, gender, location, bystander CPR performed, % witnessed, % VF and EMS dispatch to arrival time. The odds of overall survival was 2.7 times higher in the CCR group compared to the overall ACLS group (95% CI 1.7,4.4), and 3.0 times higher in the CCR subgroup of witnessed VF (95% CI 1.6,5.6).
CONCLUSION: Survival of patients with OOHCA in Arizona was significantly better in fire departments utilizing the cardiocerebral resuscitation protocol than in fire departments utilizing ACLS. Implementing the cardiocerebral resuscitation protocol on a large scale is feasible and saves lives.