Abstract 3646: Supplement with Omega-3 Fatty Acids Lowers Pulse Wave Velocity in Obese Adolescents
Introduction: Compared with normal-weight adolescents, obese adolescents show higher ratio between omega-6 (n6) and omega-3 (n3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in plasma phospholipids. They also show increased arterial stiffness, which is related to development of atherosclerosis. Regular diet and lifestyle interventions have low compliance, while a standardized supplement of fish-oil is easy to define and administer.
Hypothesis: Supplementation of n3 lowers the plasma n6/n3 PUFA ratio and lowers arterial stiffness measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV) in obese adolescents.
Methods: 25 obese adolescents (13 females, 12 males, age 15.4 ±1.1 yrs, BMI 34.1 ±4.3) were recruited and randomized to intake of capsules containing either n3 (186 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 58 mg docosahexaenoic acid), or placebo (palmitic acid), 2x5 capsules, for 3 months. The study was performed in a double-blind, cross-over design with 6 weeks washout period. Weight, height, waist, hip and blood pressure measurements as well as fasting blood samples were obtained before and after each treatment period. PWV was measured after each respective treatment period.
Results: The plasma n6/n3 PUFA ratio was reduced by 43 % from 6.8 ± 2.1 (p<0.0001) with n3 treatment, and was not affected by placebo treatment. The plasma triglycerides were reduced by 21% from 1.2 ±0.5 (p=0.001) with n3 treatment, but not placebo. The plasma n6/n3 PUFA ratio difference between n3 and placebo treatment was correlated to the difference in PWV (r=0.43, p=0.03) indicating that the lowering of n6/n3 ratio results in lowering PWV. There were no changes in weight, height, waist, hip or blood pressure.
Conclusion: Supplementation with n3 capsules of 5 g/day decreases the ratio between n6/n3 PUFA and triglycerides in plasma and is associated with a lowering of arterial stiffness in obese adolescents.