Abstract 3598: Circulating Ghrelin, Leptin, and Soluble Leptin Receptor and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in a Community-Based Sample
Background: Ghrelin, leptin and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R), adipokines involved in appetite control and energy expenditure, have been associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in different settings, but their conjoint effects and relative importance is unknown.
Methods: We measured circulating ghrelin, leptin, and sOB-R concentrations in 362 participants (mean age, 45 years; 54% women) of the Framingham Third Generation Cohort recruited in 2002– 05. We related the adipokines to metabolic risk factors including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), lipid measures, fasting glucose, and smoking, and to the number of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components.
Results: Ghrelin and leptin levels were higher in women, whereas sOB-R levels were lower (P<0.0001 for all comparisons). In multivariable stepwise selection models, ghrelin was inversely associated with age and systolic BP, and leptin was positively related to BMI and WC. sOB-R was positively associated with age, serum total cholesterol and blood glucose, and inversely with WC and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Ghrelin and sOB-R levels decreased with the number of MetS components, whereas leptin increased (Table⇓). Relating all adipokines (log-transformed) to MetS in a age- and sex-adjusted model, higher leptin levels were associated with an increased odds of MetS (odds ratio [OR], 4.44, 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.91– 6.77 per 1-SD increase), whereas higher ghrelin levels were associated with a decreased odds (OR, 0.55, 95% CI, 0.40 – 0.76 per 1-SD increase). sOB-R was not significantly associated with MetS in this conjoint model.
Conclusions: In our community-based sample, we found a striking sexual dimorphism in the circulating levels of ghrelin, leptin, and sOB-R. All three adipokines were strongly associated with number of MetS components, consistent with the view that adipokines may have a central role in the development of cardiometabolic risk factors.