Abstract 3473: The Effect of Cigarette Smoking on the Antiplatelet Effect of Clopidogrel: The Smokers Paradox
Background: Wide response variability to clopidogrel therapy has been reported. Clopidogrel is a prodrug that requires metabolic activation by hepatic cytochromes (CYP). Cigarette smoking is an inducer of CYP1A2 and may, therefore, enhance the metabolism of clopidogrel. We sought to examine the effect of cigarette smoking on the platelet response to clopidogrel.
Methods: Three hundred thirteen consecutive patients undergoing elective coronary stenting were studied. Platelet aggregation (PA) was assessed by light transmittance aggregometry (LTA) stimulated by 5 and 20μ M adenosine diphosphate. One hundred fourteen patients were on chronic clopidogrel therapy, were not reloaded, and had pre-stenting PA measurements. Pre-and post-stenting PA was measured in 199 patients: 60 were loaded with 300mg and 139 were loaded with 600mg. There were 120 current smokers (smoking within 2 weeks of PCI) and 193 non-smokers (no prior history of smoking). Low PA was defined as the lowest two quartiles of 5μM ADP-induced platelet aggregation (≤ 40%).
Results: PA was significantly lower (p ≤ 0.008) in smokers on long term chronic clopidogrel treatment (Table⇓). Relative platelet inhibition (RPI) was higher in smokers treated with either 300mg or 600mg clopidogrel measured by 5 and 20μM ADP-induced PA. In a multivariate analysis, cigarette smoking was an independent predictor of low PA in patients on chronic clopidogrel therapy and in patients loaded with clopidogrel (r=0.3, p=0.0001).
Conclusion: Clopidogrel therapy in smokers is associated with increased platelet inhibition and lower aggregation as compared to non-smokers. The mechanism of the smoking effect deserves further study and may be another cause of response variability to clopidogrel. RPI =100 x ((baseline aggregation-post-treatment aggregation)/(baseline aggregation))