Abstract 456: Antiphospholipid Antibodies Promote Platelet Activation and Thrombosis by Inhibition of Platelet eNOS
The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune systemic disorder characterized by the persistent presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL Ab) and increased risk of thrombosis, coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction. Although platelets are known direct targets of aPL Ab action, the molecular basis of aPL Ab actions on platelets remains unclear. Platelet endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) is a key regulator of platelet function, with NO causing blunted activation. We therefore determined whether aPL Ab modulate platelet eNOS. Normal human IgG (NH IgG) and human IgG containing polyclonal aPL Ab were obtained from healthy individuals and APS patients, respectively, and purified using protein G-Sepharose chromatography. Using both human and mouse platelets, we found that aPL Ab increased agonist-induced platelet activation whereas NH IgG did not. In contrast to the enhanced activation by aPL Ab in platelets from wild-type mice, aPL Ab had no effect on platelets isolated from eNOS null mice. Pre-treatment of platelets with aPL Ab also inhibited insulin-mediated eNOS stimulation as evidenced by diminished cGMP production and DAF2 fluorescence. Receptor associated protein (RAP), an antagonist of ligand binding to members of the LDL receptor family, blocked aPL Ab-induced increases in platelet activation. RAP also prevented aPL Ab-mediated antagonism of platelet eNOS, indicating that aPL Ab signal through the platelet ApoER2â ϵ™ (LRP8) to attenuate eNOS activity. Furthermore, using intravital microscopy of the mouse mesenteric circulation, we demonstrated that platelets from wild-type mice treated with aPL Ab have increased rolling on a stimulated endothelium and a decreased time to thrombus formation in vivo versus platelets treated with NH IgG. In contrast, aPL Ab did not alter the in vivo function of platelets from eNOS null mice. These cumulative in vitro and in vivo findings demonstrate that aPL Ab antagonism of platelet eNOS through LDL receptor family member binding underlies aPL Ab-mediated thrombosis.