Abstract 3113: Uncontrolled Hypertension, Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure and Development of Symptomatic Peripheral Arterial Disease in the Women’s Health Study
Background: Prospective data pertaining to risk factors for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in women are sparse. Few studies have evaluated blood pressure, including uncontrolled hypertension, and PAD onset in women.
Methods and Results: We examined the relationship between blood pressure and development of confirmed symptomatic PAD (n=116 events) in a prospective cohort study of 39,261 female health professionals aged ≤ 45 years without diagnosed vascular disease at baseline. Median follow-up was 11.4 years. Women were first grouped according to baseline presence of uncontrolled hypertension, defined as reported systolic blood pressure (SBP)≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg, and pharmacologic treatment status. SBP and DBP were then modeled as continuous and categorical exposures irrespective of treatment status. Pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were also assessed. Age-adjusted and multivariable-adjusted risk estimates were derived from Cox proportional hazards models. Women with treated but uncontrolled hypertension had the highest risk of symptomatic PAD (0.67 events per 1000 person-years). Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) compared to women without hypertension were 1.1 (95% CI, 0.5–2.3) for women who were treated and controlled, 1.7 (95% CI, 1.0 –3.0) for women untreated and uncontrolled, and 2.3 (95% CI, 1.4 – 4.0) for women treated and uncontrolled (p-trend<0.001). When hypertension was examined using continuous and categorical measures, there was a 33% increase in risk per 10 mmHg of SBP (95% CI, 18 to 47%) and a positive gradient in multivariable-adjusted risk according to SBP category (<120, 120 –139, 140 –159, and ≤ 160 mmHg); HRs were 1.0, 1.6, 2.8, and 4.3 (p-trend<0.001), respectively. We also considered DBP, PP, and MAP. While individually predictive, none was a stronger predictor than SBP with none adding predictive ability beyond SBP.
Conclusions: Uncontrolled hypertension is associated with incident symptomatic PAD in women. Among blood pressure variables assessed, SBP is the best single predictor. These data support a strong prognostic role for systolic blood pressure in the development of peripheral atherosclerosis in women.