Abstract 2965: Mutations in SNTA1-Encoded Syntrophin α: Characterization of a Novel Long QT Syndrome Susceptibility Gene Involving the Sodium Channel Macromolecular Complex
Background: Genes encoding sodium channel interacting proteins (ChIPs) have been identified as novel long QT syndrome (LQTS)-susceptibility genes. Approximately 25% of patients with LQTS remain genotype negative. ChIPs comprising the sodium channel macromolecular complex represent attractive candidates for disease susceptibility. Previously, in human jejunal circular smooth muscle, we demonstrated that syntrophin γ2 regulates sodium channel gating by a PDZ-domain interaction involving the C-terminus. In the heart, syntrophin α is more highly expressed than γ2, therefore, syntrophin α was evaluated as a possible LQTS-susceptibility ChIP.
Methods: Comprehensive open reading frame/splice mutational analysis of syntrophin α was performed using PCR, DHPLC, and direct DNA sequencing on a cohort of 50 unrelated patients with LQT1–10 negative/phenotype positive LQTS (34 females; average age at diagnosis 26 ± 16 years; average QTc 531 ± 60.4 ms; QTc range 480 –759 ms). Mutations were engineered by site-directed mutagenesis and transiently expressed in HEK293 cells containing the stably-expressed SCN5A-encoded sodium channel α subunit (hNaV1.5).
Results: Analysis of syntrophin α, encoded by SNTA1, revealed 3 missense mutations in 2 patients (4%). A female diagnosed with LQTS at 13 years (QTc, 480 ms) with family history of autopsy-negative unexplained sudden death, was compound heterozygous for P74L/A257G while a male, diagnosed with LQTS at 18 years following syncopal episodes (QTc, 529 ms), hosted the A390V mutation. These mutations were absent in 600 reference alleles and A257G and A390V involved highly conserved residues. Functional studies revealed a marked leftward shift in sodium current activation for A257G and a significant rightward shift in channel inactivation for A390V-SNTA1. Both kinetic perturbations precipitated a ``gain-of-function” increase in the sodium channel window current.
Conclusion: We provide the sentinel report of SNTA1 as a novel LQTS-susceptibility gene with a putative pathogenic mechanism involving a secondary ``gain-of-function” in the NaV1.5 sodium channel. Thus, CAV3-LQTS (LQT9), SCN4B-LQTS (LQT10), and now SNTA1-LQTS represent functional homologues with LQT3-like perturbations.