Abstract 373: A Novel Haplotype In The G(alpha)s Gene Alters Gene Expression And Responsiveness To Receptor Stimulation And Predicts Cardiac Performance In Humans
Background: Transgenic mice with cardiac Gαs overexpression exhibit enhanced inotropic and chronotropic responses to sympathetic stimulation, but develop cardiomyopathy with age. In contrast, chronic beta-adrenergic receptor blockade (beta-AR) mitigates cardiac dilation and depressed left ventricular function in these models. We tested the hypothesis that naturally occurring variants in regulatory regions of the human gene GNAS encoding Gαs result in altered Gαs expression and signal transduction properties in humans.
Methods and results: Sequencing the promoter and intron 1 of GNAS revealed 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms resulting in three common haplotypes. In reporter assays haplotype *3 constructs exhibited significantly higher promoter activity compared to haplotype *1 and *2 constructs. In hearts from 54 patients under chronic beta-AR blockade scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) Gαs mRNA expression was more than 50% higher in homozygous *3 carriers (*3/*3) than in heterozygous (*3/−) and negative *3 (−/−) carriers (Gαs/Actin, 0.16±0.06 vs. 0.10±0.03 vs. 0.09±0.04; p=0.002). Consistent with increased Gαs expression, functional studies showed that *3/*3 carriers had higher basal activities of adenylyl cyclase (AC, 32.4±12.9 vs. 29.1±7.9 vs. 25.5±5.3 pmol/min/mg; p=0.019) and maximal isoproterenol-stimulated activities were markedly higher for the *3/*3 compared to *3/− and −/− carriers (79.3±29.7 vs. 66.7±16.2 vs. 57.3±11.1 pmol/min/mg; p=0.002). Direct AC stimulation with Forskolin was unaffected by GNAS haplotypes. Hemodynamic measurements in 137 bypass patients under chronic beta-AR blockade revealed a higher cardiac index (2.2±0.2 vs. 1.9±0.1 vs. 1.8±0.1 l min-1 m-2; p=0.025) in *3/*3 carriers. This was also in line with a lower NYHA functional class (1.8±0.2 vs. 2.2±0.1 vs. 2.3±0.1; p=0.040) and NT-proBNP levels (339±87 vs. 746±110 vs. 1365±259 pg/ml; p=0.002).
Summary: Increased Gαs expression due to a functional haplotype results in altered signal transduction properties and may have salutary effects on cardiac performance in CABG patients under chronic beta-AR blockade. Our data therefore could help to translate results from transgenic mice to genotype-phenotype correlations in humans.