Abstract 371: Prevalence and Spectrum of Thin Filament Mutations in 1025 Patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
Background Recently, genetic testing for sarcomeric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) became a commercially available diagnostic test involving analysis of 8 HCM-associated myofilament genes, four of which encode thin filament proteins - TNNT2-encoded cardiac troponin T, TPM1-encoded alpha tropomyosin, TNNI3-encoded cardiac troponin I, and ACTC-encoded cardiac actin. Compared to the two most common subtypes of sarcomeric HCM, much less is known about the prevalence and spectrum of thin filament HCM.
Methods Comprehensive open reading frame/splice site mutational analysis of these 4 thin filament-encoding genes was performed, using polymerase chain reaction, denaturing high performance liquid chromatography, and direct DNA sequencing, on the largest assembled cohort of unrelated patients (N = 1025, 61% male, 49 ± 18 years at diagnosis, maximal left ventricular wall thickness, LVWT, 22.3 ± 7 mm) with clinically diagnosed HCM that were seen at the Mayo Clinic.
Results Nineteen distinct missense mutations, involving conserved residues and absent in 600 reference alleles, were identified in 36 of 1025 patients (3.5%) including TNNT2 (16 patients), TNNI3 (12), TPM1 (7) and ACTC (1). Among these 36 patients with thin filament-HCM, their average age at diagnosis was 33.2 ± 16 years and the average LVWT was 21 ± 8 mm. Eighteen patients (50%) had evidence for familial HCM and 13% had a positive history for sudden cardiac death. Only 13 patients (36%) had a reverse septal curvature by echocardiography. Instead, 12 patients (34%) had either sigmoidal or neutral septal contours and 9 patients (25%) had apical variant-HCM.
Conclusion Here, we present the largest cohort analysis of thin filament HCM to date and detail the prevalence and spectrum of HCM-associated mutations in these 4 genes. Compared to the strong association between reverse septal curvature and thick filament HCM, the septal morphology associated with thin filament HCM was quite varied. Contrary to published estimates of the frequency of troponin T-HCM (5 – 10%) and the other subtypes of thin filament HCM, the prevalence of thin filament HCM was very low in this cohort. If confirmed in other cohorts, a revised cascade for HCM genetic testing should be considered.