Abstract 2554: Natural History of Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Outcome Not as Benign as Previously Suspected
Background. Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (AHCM) has been considered a ``benign” form of HCM in Asian and non-Asian patients (pt). However, data on long-term outcome of pt with AHCM are limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the natural history of pt with AHCM followed at a tertiary referral center in North America.
Methods. Between July 1976 and September 2006, 193 pt with the diagnosis of AHCM were seen at the Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Clinic. The last echocardiographic exam was reviewed in all pt. Follow-up data were obtained where possible (clinic visit).
Results. Mean age at diagnosis 56±17 years, mean age at first presentation at our center was 58±17 years. Symptoms included chest pain in 69 pt (36 %), and exertional dyspnea ≥NYHA II in 97 pt (50 %). A family history of either HCM and/or sudden cardiac death was reported by 36 pt (19 %). Coronary artery disease was proven in 40 pt (21 %). Median follow up was 50 months (1–318) and obtained in 124 pt (64 %). The following events were reported at the last clinic visit: heart failure in =5 pt, syncope in =0 pt, ventricular tachycardia in =7 pt, ICD implantation in 22 pt, and stroke in 22 pt. Death from all causes occurred in 51 of 193 pt (26 %) at a mean age of 72 years (14–78). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to examine survival from all causes of death since first presentation. Observed survival in patients with AHCM was significantly less than expected in an age- and gender matched Minnesota white population (p=0.009). The observed survival at 5, 10 and 15 years was 87 %, 82 %, and 57 % respectively, while the expected survival for these time points was 91 %, 81 %, and 72 %.
Conclusions. AHCM in this predominantly North American patient population is associated with an increased mortality. Patients with AHCM have a high incidence of significant cardiovascular symptoms and ventricular arrhythmias. As the disease is less benign than previously suspected, careful longitudinal care by a cardiologist is warranted.