Abstract 2370: Relationship of Body Mass Index Rebound Age and Adverse Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Children
Purpose: In early childhood, body mass index (BMI) reaches a nadir, the BMI rebound, before increasing through later childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. While earlier age of BMI rebound is associated with obesity and obesity-related disease, it is unknown if the timing of BMI rebound is associated with the presence of adverse cardiovascular risk factors in childhood. The aim of this study was to determine if timing of BMI rebound is associated with the presence of adverse cardiovascular risk factors in children at age 7 years.
Methods: This was a prospective cohort study. BMI values were recorded beginning at age 3 years every four months for four years for each child. At age 7 years the following variables were also obtained: systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum insulin, leptin, and echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular and left atrial function and geometry. The cohort was divided into three groups based on age of BMI rebound:
early BMI rebound age (below the 25th percentile),
middle BMI rebound age (between the 25th and 75th percentiles), and
late BMI rebound age (above the 75th percentile).
Results: Twenty-fifth and 75th percentile BMI rebound ages were 4.4 and 6.6 years for boys, and 4.2 and 5.7 years for girls respectively. In both genders, earlier age of BMI rebound was associated with higher BMI and systolic and diastolic blood pressures, higher serum insulin and leptin levels, and higher left ventricular mass and left atrial size at 7 years of age.
Conclusions: Earlier age of BMI rebound is associated with adverse childhood cardiovascular changes including higher blood pressure, elevated insulin and leptin levels, and elevated left ventricular mass and left atrial size. This study supports early clinical monitoring of cardiovascular risk factors in children who demonstrate early age of BMI rebound in order to manage and prevent cardiovascular disease.