Abstract 2366: Supplementation Of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Improves Insulin Sensitivity In Female, But Not Male, Obese Adolescents
Compared with normal-weight adolescents, obese adolescents have higher saturated fatty acid and lower omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3) in plasma phospholipids, and these changes are associated with decreased insulin sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether n3 treatment would improve insulin sensitivity in obese adolescents. Obese adolescents (13 females, 12 males, age 15±0.8 yr, BMI 33.9±4 kg/m2) were randomized to intake of capsules containing either n3 (186 mg eicosapentaenoic acid, 58 mg docosahexaenoic acid), or placebo (palmitic acid), 2×5 capsules per day, for 3 months. The study was performed in a double-blind, cross-over design with a six-week washout period. Intravenous glucose tolerance test and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp were performed in the end of treatment periods. Fasting blood samples were taken before and after treatment for determining the level of glucose, insulin, leptin and high-molecular weight (HMW)-adiponectin. All results are presented as Mean ± SD. The magnitude of insulin response to glucose was quantified as incremental area under curve (ΔAUC, Table⇓). Beta-cell function, quantified as first-phase insulin response (ΔAUC0 –10min), was not affected by n3 treatment. However, n3 treatment improved restoration of insulin concentration (ΔAUC60 – 80min). Glucose tolerance, determined as the slope of logarithm of glucose values during 10 –30 min after glucose infusion, was significantly improved after n3 treatment (n3: −0.026±0.012; placebo: −0.018±0.009, p<0.05). Insulin sensitivity index obtained from clamp study was slightly increased after n3 treatment (n3: 0.047±0.016; placebo: 0.039±0.015 mg·kg−1·min−1· (mU/L) −1, p=0.07). All these changes were observed in females, but not males. N3 treatment did not change plasma levels of leptin and HMW-adiponectin. In conclusion, supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids improves insulin sensitivity in female, but not male, obese adolescents.