Abstract 1917: ABO-Incompatible Heart Transplantation in Infants: Analysis of the United Network for Organ Sharing Database
Introduction: ABO-incompatible heart transplantation, traditionally contraindicated because of the risk of hyperacute rejection, has been used selectively in recent years. Infants have limited production of isohemagglutinins, which may lower the risk of hyperacute rejection. We analyzed the impact of ABO-incompatibility on outcomes after heart transplantation in infants.
Methods: Heart transplant recipients <1 year of age reported to the United Network for Organ Sharing from 1999–2007 were divided according to donor-recipient ABO-incompatibility or compatibility. Outcomes included Kaplan-Meier survival and hyperacute rejection. Propensity-adjusted Cox regression modeling was used to identify predictors of mortality.
Results: 591 infants underwent heart transplantation: 35 (6%) received allografts from ABO-incompatible donors. ABO-incompatible recipients trended toward more congenital heart disease (71 vs 66%; p=0.06) and were less likely to have dilated cardiomyopathy (11 vs 29%; p=0.02). One ABO-incompatible infant had hyperacute rejection requiring re-transplantation. No ABO-incompatible infant and 2 ABO-compatible infants died from hyperacute rejection. Survival was similar at 3 years (Figure⇓). Propensity-adjusted Cox regression analysis demonstrated that ABO-incompatibility did not predict mortality (HR 3.61; 95% CI 0.26–49.0; p=0.33).
Conclusion: ABO-incompatible heart transplantation can be performed safely in infants with a low incidence of hyperacute rejection. ABO-incompatible heart transplantation should be considered in infants to maximize donor organ utilization and reduce mortality among infants on the waiting list.