Abstract 1889: Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy With Biventricular Pacing Improves Renal Function in Heart Failure Patients With Reduced Glomerular Filtration Rate
Background: Renal dysfunction has emerged as an important independent prognostic factor in patients with heart failure (HF). Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) improves functional status and left ventricular (LV) function in HF patients with ventricular dyssynchrony. We hypothesized that CRT would also improve glomerular filtration rate as estimated by the abbreviated MDRD equation (eGFR) in patients with reduced eGFR.
Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of the Multicenter InSync Randomized Clinical Evaluation (MIRACLE) study, which evaluated CRT in HF patients with NYHA class III–IV, ejection fraction ≤35%, QRS ≥130 ms, and stable medical regimen. Patients were evaluated before implantation and 6 months after randomization to control (CRT device OFF, n=225) or CRT (n=228). Patients were categorized according to their baseline eGFR: ≥90 (category A), 60≤eGFR<90 (category B), and 30≤eGFR<60 (category C) mL/min per 1.73m2. Changes in eGFR were also correlated with changes in other parameters in univariate analysis.
Results: At baseline, reduced eGFR was associated with ischemic etiology, increased age, mitral regurgitation, and neurohumoral activation. CRT increased LV ejection fraction and decreased LV volumes and mitral regurgitation in all categories. Importantly, CRT improved eGFR (p=0.003) and reduced blood urea nitrogen (p=0.008) compared to control in category C, but not A (p=0.75/p=0.41) and B (p=0.43/p=0.89). In addition, only in category C did atrial natriuretic peptide decrease, suggesting reduced atrial distention and filling pressures with CRT in this group with impaired eGFR. In univariate analysis, changes in eGFR correlated weakly but significantly with changes in aldosterone (r=−0.22), plasma renin activity (r=−0.19, norepinephrine (r=−0.16), and mean blood pressure (r=+0.14), a pattern consistent with reduced neurohumoral activation due to increased systemic and renal perfusion pressure.
Conclusions: CRT increased eGFR and reduced blood urea nitrogen in HF patients with reduced baseline eGFR. By improving cardiac function, CRT can indirectly improve renal function, underscoring the importance of cardiorenal interaction and providing another mechanism for the beneficial effects of CRT.