Abstract 1747: Acute Effect of Oral Flavonoid-Rich Dark Chocolate Intake on Coronary Circulation by Transthoracic Doppler Echocardiography in Healthy Adults
Purpose: To assess the acute effects of the oral intake of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate on coronary circulation, we measured coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) by noninvasive transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (TTDE) in healthy adult subjects in comparison to no-flavonoid white chocolate intake.
Materials and Methods: The study was a randomized, single-blind design conducted for 2 weeks in 39 healthy adults (mean age 29.7±3.9 years, range 23– 40 years). Subjects were randomly assigned a daily intake of either flavonoid-rich dark chocolate (Cacao polyphenol 550 mg/day, 200 kcal) or no-flavonoid white chocolate (Cacao polyphenol 0 mg/day, 140 kcal) as a control. CFVR was recorded by TTDE, and assessed at baseline and after 2 weeks of intake. At the same time, we also assessed serum asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), 8-isoprostanes, and malondialdehyde-modified low density lipopro-tein (MDA-LDL) as markers of oxidative stress, in addition to blood pressure, and blood lipids. We evaluated the acute effect of oral flavonoid-rich dark chocolate intake on coronary circulation by multiple regression analysis considering these parameters.
Results: Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate consumption significantly improved CFVR (3.38±0.49 before intake, 4.28±0.85 after intake; p<0.01), whereas no-flavonoid white chocolate consumption did not (3.28±0.49 before intake, 3.16±0.49 after intake; p=0.44). All predictor variables were used as dependent variables in a multiple regression model of the incremental change in CFVR after 2 weeks of chocolate intake. Intake of dark (but not white) chocolate, MDA-LDL, TG and heart rates (HR) significantly influenced the change in CFVR after 2 weeks of intake (p<0.01) according to the multiple regression formula: Y=1.01X1 − 0.005X2 − 0.003X3 − 0.017X4 (Y=change in CFVR after 2 weeks of chocolate intake, X1=intake of dark (but not white) chocolate, X2=MDA-LDL, X3=TG, X4=HR).
Conclusion: Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate intake had acute effects in improving coronary circulation in healthy adults, as compared with no-flavonoid white chocolate, independent of changes in oxidative stress parameters, blood pressure and lipid profile.