Abstract 1597: Safety and Efficacy of Inhaled Iloprost Via a Disposable Nebulizer in Heart Failure Patients With Elevated Pulmonary Vascular Resistance
Background: Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) is routinely measured in patients (pts) being evaluated for a heart transplant. Pts with a high PVR are often treated with a milrinone or intravenous vasodilator “challenge” to establish that the PVR is not “fixed”. However, all current agents have dose-limiting side effects such as arrhythmias and hypotension. Inhaled iloprost would be an option but it is given with a costly adaptive aerosol delivery device. In addition, the efficacy and safety of this drug in left heart failure is poorly studied.
Methods: 10 adult heart failure pts who were found to have a PVR of greater than 200 dyne-sec on routine right heart catheterization were enrolled. 50 micrograms (mcg) of iloprost was inhaled while in the catheterization laboratory using a disposable nebulizer and outflow filter, over 10 minutes. Hemodynamics were monitored at baseline, following drug inhalation, and 20 minutes later.
Results: The average age of the patients (6 male, 4 female) was 64.8 ± 8.9 years. The mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 20.6 ± 8.6 %. The mean creatinine clearance (Cockroft-Gault) was 48.7 ± 18.9 ml/hr. The mean arterial pressure (MAP), pulmonary artery systolic (PAS), PA diastolic (PAD), PCWP, transpulmonic gradient (TPG), cardiac output (CO), and PVR at baseline, 10 minutes and 20 minutes post-inhalation are detailed below. Iloprost significantly reduced PAS, TPG and PVR without changes in MAP, PAD, PCWP or CO. These effects remained significant at study completion as well. There were no adverse events noted.
Conclusion: Iloprost inhalation was well tolerated in heart failure patients undergoing right heart catheterization. Inhalation of 50 mcg of iloprost via a simple hospital nebulizer was associated with safe, rapid, and significant declines in indices of pulmonary vascular tone, without affecting cardiac output or PCWP. Further investigation of this novel use of iloprost is warranted.