Abstract 1396: Mitigation Of Cardiac Injury By Sulfaphenazole, A CYP2C9 Inhibitor Through Involvement Of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) in Post-ischemic Heart
Cytochrome P450 enzymes play a significant role in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Sulfaphenazole (SFZ), a potent CYP2C9 inhibitor, is known to reduce I/R injury. However, the mechanism of its cardioprotective effects and the role of nitric oxide (NO) is not clear.
Objective: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are important mediators of I/R injury. The objective of this study was to determine how SFZ treatment modulates myocardial tissue oxygenation (pO2) and RNS generation in vivo.
Methods: Myocardial infarction was induced in rats by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) for 30 min, followed by 24 h of reperfusion. The study was divided into 4 groups: Untreated I/R control, SFZ, L-NAME, and SFZ+L-NAME. L-NAME (100 mg/kg/day), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, was given orally for 3 days prior to LAD ligation. SFZ (1.5 mg/kg, ip) was injected 30 min prior to LAD ligation. Oxygen-sensing crystals were implanted into the LV wall and the rat was placed in an L-band (1.2 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer for measurement of myocardial tissue pO2 during I/R injury. Hemodynamic data was collected with a microtip catheter. Infarct size was measured after 24 h of reperfusion. Superoxide generation was determined by dihydroethidium fluorescence imaging. Immunohistological staining was performed for nitrotyrosine and iNOS.
Results: After LAD ligation, pO2 decreased from 18 mmHg baseline to <2 mmHg. At reperfusion, there was a significant myocardial hyperoxygenation in SFZ-treated rats compared to control group (45.0±1.3 vs. 34.0±2.0 mmHg, P<0.05). In L-NAME and L-NAME+SFZ-treated rats, there was a significant reduction in pO2 (24.0±1.6 and 26.0±2.3 mmHg, respectively). Compared to control, SFZ treatment significantly improved the left ventricular developed pressure (94.0±4.7 vs. 69.0±6.5 mmHg, P<0.05), decreased infarct size % (35.0±4.2 vs. 16.0±2.5, P<0.05), decreased superoxide generation and nitrotyrosine production.
Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that SFZ may provide potent cardioprotection by attenuating post-ischemic ROS and RNS generation, and could serve as an attractive adjuvant therapy in the clinical setting of myocardial I/R injury.