Abstract 1375: Brain Renin Angiotensin Blockade Attenuates Cytokines and Oxidative Stress in the Paraventricular Nucleus of Hypothalamus and Decreases Sympathoexcitation in Heart Failure Rats
Introduction: Neurohumoral mechanisms play an important role in the pathophysiology of congestive heart failure (HF). Recent studies suggest that the brain renin angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in regulating body fluids and sympathetic drive in HF. In addition, it has been shown that there is cross talk between cytokines and RAS in cardiovascular disease. In this study we determined whether blockade of brain RAS attenuate inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress in HF rats.
Methods and Results: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannulae and subjected to coronary artery ligation to induce HF and confirmed by echocardiography. Rats were treated with an angiotensin type 1 receptors (AT1-R) antagonist losartan (LOS, 20 μg/hr, ICV) or vehicle (VEH) for 4 weeks. At the end of the study, left ventricular (LV) function was measured by echocardiography and rats were sacrificed, and brain and plasma samples were collected for measurements of cytokines and superoxide using immunohistochemistry, Western blot and real time RT-PCR. HF rats induced significant increases in Nuclear Factor-kappaB (NF-κB) p50-positive neurons and activated microglia in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of hypothalamus, and TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and NF-κB p50 in hypothalamus when compared with sham rats. These animals also had increased staining for dihydroethidium (DHE) and plasma levels of norepinephrine (NE), an indirect indicator of sympathetic activity. In contrast, ICV treatment with LOS attenuated cytokine expression and oxidative stress in the PVN and hypothalamus when compared with VEH treated HF rats. ICV treatment with LOS also reduced plasma NE levels, and proinflammatory cytokine, heart weight to body weight ratio with decreased LV end-diastolic pressure.
Conclusions: These findings suggest the cross talk between the cytokines and renin angiotensin system within the brain contribute to sympatho-excitation in HF.