Abstract 1185: Role Of Sphingosine-1-Phosphate (S1P) In Insulin Signaling.
A failure to increase glucose disposal into peripheral tissues in response to insulin leads to impaired insulin signaling and an inability to uptake glucose leading to the onset of insulin resistance, a major contributing factor to diabetes. We examined the role of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in insulin signaling and its ability to regulate glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells. S1P, a sphingolipid found in abundance in the circulation, has been implicated in not only mediating crosstalk with other signaling pathways but has also been implicated in insulin resistance. We hypothesize that S1P interacts with post-receptor insulin signaling to increase glucose disposal in an in vitro model of insulin resistance using differentiated mouse skeletal C2C12 myotubes. Our data demonstrates that S1P (10μM) increases basal glucose levels similar to that observed in response to insulin (100nM) under conditions of low glucose (** p < 0.005: n = 3). Conversely, high glucose conditions completely inhibit both insulin and S1P stimulated glucose uptake (*p < 0.01:n = 3). Pre-incubation with S1P does not augment insulin-induced glucose uptake (***p < 0.001:n = 3), suggesting that S1P does not act via a separate signaling pathway. This is confirmed by our data demonstrating that S1P-induced glucose uptake is abrogated by Cytochalasin B (*p < 0.001:n = 3). In addition, the PI3-K inhibitors, LY294002 and Wortmannin, the Akt inhibitor, AKT2 and the p38MAPK inhibitor, SB203580 significantly inhibited glucose uptake in response to S1P, demonstrating their importance in S1P-induced glucose uptake (*p < 0.05:n = 3). S1P2 and S1P3 receptor expression were upregulated in response to insulin (~2-fold over basal) under low glucose conditions suggesting that insulin may regulate S1P signaling via one or both of these receptors. S1P increased serine phosphorylation of IRS1, both at serine 307 and serines 636/639 maximally after 15 minutes of stimulation. This data has important clinical implications in patients with metabolic syndrome who have impaired skeletal muscle glucose disposal due to insulin resistance and will help guide present and future therapy for patients who have this rapidly growing disease.