Abstract 1125: Mulberry Leaf Ameliorates The Production Of Adipocytokines By Inhibiting Oxidative Stress In White Adipose Tissue In db/db Mice
Mulberry leaf (ML) is commonly used to feed silkworms. Previous study showed that ML ameliorates atherosclerosis. However, its mechanism is not completely understood. Because dysregulated production of adipocytokines is involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, we examined the effect of ML on the production of adipocytokines and metabolic disorders related to the metabolic syndrome, and compared its effect with that of a PPARγ agonist, pioglitazone (Pio). By treating obese diabetic db/db mice with ML, Pio, and their combination, we investigated the mechanism by which they improve metabolic disorders. In this study, db/+m (lean control) and db/db mice were fed a standard diet with or without 3% (w/w) ML and/or 0.01% (w/w) Pio for 12 weeks from 9 weeks of age. At the end of the experiment we found that ML decreased plasma glucose and triglyceride by 32% and 30%, respectively. Interestingly, administration of ML in addition to Pio showed additive effects; further 40% and 30% reduction in glucose and triglyceride compared with Pio treatment, respectively. Moreover, administration of ML in addition to Pio suppressed the body weight increase by Pio treatment and reduced visceral/subcutaneous fat ratio by 20% compared with control db/db mice. Importantly, ML treatment increased expression of adiponectin in white adipose tissue (WAT) by 40%, which was only found in db/db mice, not in control db/+m mice. Combination of ML and Pio increased plasma adiponectin concentrations by 25% and its expression in WAT by 17% compared with Pio alone. In contrast, ML decreased expression of TNF-α and MCP-1 by 25% and 20%, respectively, and the addition of Pio resulted in a further decrease of these cytokines by about 45%. To study the mechanism, we examined the role of oxidative stress. ML decreased the amount of lipid peroxides by 43% and the expression of NADPH oxidase subunits in WAT, which was consistent with the results of TNF-α and MCP-1. Thus our results indicate that ML ameliorates adipocytokine dysregulation by inhibiting oxidative stress in WAT of obese mice, and that ML may have a potential for the treatment of the metabolic syndrome as well as reducing adverse effects of Pio.