Abstract 832: The Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) Antagonizes Oxidized LDL Receptor, LOX-1, Activation
The nuclear hormone receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) plays a critical role in the regulation of enterohepatic circulation and lipid homeostasis and may also positively impact vascular inflammation and endothelial function through the antagonism of oxidized LDL receptor, LOX-1, activation. LOX-1 is a endothelial membrane bound scavenger receptor that upon ligand binding stimulates NF-κB and MAPK pathways leading to adhesion molecule and inflammatory gene expression with subsequent nitric oxide inhibition. Since LOX-1 is activated by oxLDL, LOX-1 expression was monitored in LDLR −/− mice fed a western diet. Hepatic LOX-1 mRNA was significantly induced by 7 days on the western diet compared to chow fed controls. Moreover, this LOX-1 induction was dose dependently inhibited with increasing concentrations of a potent synthetic FXR ligand WAY-362450 (FXR-450; 1–30 mg/kg po) as were downstream LOX-1 dependent genes, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. The regulation of LOX-1 was FXR-specific since another oxLDL hepatic scavenger receptor, CD36, expression was not affected by FXR-450. To determine whether this signaling pathway was active in other settings, the FXR mediated regulation of LOX-1 was studied in the diabetic mouse strain, KKAy. Both hepatic and renal LOX-1 expression was inhibited by 30 mg/kg FXR-450 after 7 days of dosing on a chow diet and resulted in the reduction of serum soluble LOX-1 levels as well. Renal gene profiling studies indicated that FXR-450 stimulated genes involved in nitric oxide production, including DDAH-1, ASS-1 and GTPCH that were all confirmed to be induced in the KKAy mouse model. Since the nitric oxide synthase antagonist ADMA stimulates LOX-1 expression, we postulated that the positive impact of FXR-450 was due to the decrease in local ADMA concentrations via DDAH-1, ASS-1 and GTPCH inductions. In support of this, ADMA mediated induction of LOX-1 was also inhibited by FXR-450 treatment. Therefore, these results identify a novel cross-talk between FXR and LOX-1 signaling pathways through their co-ordinate modulation of the nitric oxide pathway and suggest that FXR agonists may have a beneficial impact on vascular inflammation and endothelial function.