Abstract 675: Contrasting Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate Compared to Mono-unsaturated Fat on Hepatic Production of ApoE and ApoC-III Containing VLDL, and Formation of LDL
The effects of substituting dietary carbohydrate (CHO) with mono-unsaturated fat (MUFA) on plasma apoB metabolism were evaluated in 12 adults: 6 with normal and 6 with high plasma triglyceride levels. They consumed for 3 weeks each time a high CHO diet (48% complex CHO, 8% MUFA) and a high MUFA diet (31% complex CHO, 24% MUFA). ApoB100 kinetic studies were performed at the end of each dietary intervention using stable isotope labeling with a bolus and a primed continuous infusion. Multiple VLDL, IDL, and LDL fractions were prepared according to their apoE and apoC-III content. Compared to the CHO diet, the MUFA diet increased the percentage of VLDL and IDL secreted with both apoE and apoC-III (45% on MUFA vs. 14% on CHO, p < 0.01) and reduced the percentage of VLDL and IDL secreted without either apoE or apoC-III (MUFA 19% vs. CHO 40%, p = 0.02). Total liver secretion rates of apoB100 lipoproteins were similar between diets (MUFA 11.6 vs. CHO 11.3 mg·day−1·kg−1, p = NS). The dietary change did not affect the fractional catabolic rates and flux patterns of the lipoproteins. On both diets, VLDL and IDL that had apoE were rapidly cleared from the circulation, limiting LDL formation; whereas lipoproteins that did not have apoE or apoCIII mostly underwent lipolysis with little direct clearance, and were the main precursors of LDL. As a result, increased secretion of VLDL and IDL containing apoE and apoC-III caused by the MUFA diet was associated with higher direct clearance and lower LDL production rates (p = 0.02 vs. CHO), while the CHO diet increased LDL production due to increased secretion of VLDL without apoE or apoC-III. In conclusion, our results reveal a strong dietary effect on the secretion pattern of apoB100 lipoproteins. Substituting dietary complex carbohydrate with mono-unsaturated fat selectively promotes liver secretion of VLDL and IDL containing both apoE and apoC-III while suppressing the secretion of VLDL and IDL without apoE or apoC-III. This leads to significant downstream effects on LDL formation due to differential effects of apoE and apoC-III on apoB lipoprotein metabolism, resulting in enhanced particle clearance and reduced LDL formation with the MUFA diet compared to the CHO diet.