Abstract 4205: Cardiovascular Risk Profiles Measured at the Same Age in American Immigrant Fathers and Offspring
The changes in risk profiles which occur with immigration to new cultural environments are well known. However, there have been few instances where the magnitude of these changes can be examined by measurements of cardiovascular risk factors in parents and offspring at the same age. Vital statistics indicate that Japanese-Americans in Hawaii have substantially lower CVD (cardiovascular disease) rates than are present in U.S. Caucasians, but markedly higher rates than those seen in Japanese in Japan. The Honolulu Heart Program (HHP) first measured CVD risk in first and second generation Japanese-American men in Hawaii from 1965 to 1968. From 2001 to 2004, similar measures were made in offspring from a random sample of families of these HHP men as part of the NHLBI Family Blood Pressure Program. This analysis uses data from 987 offspring (505 male and 482 female) between 39 to 77 years of age. At the time of examination, the mean age for the fathers was 53.7 years and for the offspring was 56.5 years. For some risk factors, the offspring had lower age-adjusted mean values than their fathers. The mean total cholesterol in the fathers was 218 mg/dl compared to 198.9 mg/dl in sons [p<0.001] and 212 mg/dl in daughters [p<0.001]. Current smoking was seen in 38% of fathers as compared to 15% of sons [p<0.001] and 8% of daughters [p<0.001]. However, for other risk factors, the offspring levels were higher. Hypertension (BP <140/90 or on meds) was present in 39% of fathers as compared to 51% of sons [p<0.001] and 43% of daughters [ns, p=0.27]. The fathers were much leaner, with an age-adjusted mean Body Mass Index (BMI) of 23.9, compared to 27.2 for sons [p<0.0001] and 25.5 for daughters [p<0.0001]. Although defined in slightly different ways in fathers vs. offspring, diabetes was present in 15% of fathers as compared to 24% of sons [p<0.01] and 17% of daughters [ns, p=0.59]. While one must consider temporal trends as well as acculturation in making these comparisons, these data offer remarkable insight into changes in cardiovascular risk which immigrant populations face in the U.S. today.