Abstract 4141: Prevalence and Components of the Metabolic Syndrome in Peruvian Andean Mestizos: The PREVENCION Study
Background: Little data exists regarding the prevalence and relative frequency of the components of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in Andean Hispanic populations. Furthermore, it is unknown whether body mass index (BMI) can be used as an alternative to waist circumference (WC) using standard cutoff values in this ethnic population.
Methods: We evaluated the prevalence of MS according to American Heart Association / National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute criteria among 1878 subjects participating in the PREVENCION study, a population-based study of cardiovascular disease in Peru. The modified definition included a BMI>29.9 instead of the WC component.
Results: In females, the most common component was low HDL cholesterol (60.6%; 95%CI=56.8– 64.4%) followed by abdominal obesity (36.9%; 95%CI=33.5– 40.5). In males, the most common component was elevated triglycerides (51.9%; 95%CI=47.8–56%) followed by low HDL cholesterol (32.3%; 95%CI=28.5–33.2%), whereas abdominal obesity was present in only 14% (95%CI=11.6–16.9%). Abnormal fasting glucose was the least common component in both males (5.4%) and females (5.0%). The prevalence of MS was 18.7% and was significantly higher in females (23.1%; 95%CI=20.4–26.1%) than males (14.2%; 95%CI=11.8%-17%). The risk of MS increased steeply with age and this increase differed between males and females (p for interaction<0.0001) resulting in a higher prevalence of MS in women after age 50 but not before age 50. This resulted from a steeper increase in the prevalence of abnormal blood pressure, hypertriglyceridemia and abdominal obesity in women. Compared to WC, the use of BMI for the diagnosis of MS lead to equivalent prevalence estimates in males (14.2% for WC vs. 14.1% for BMI) but significantly underestimated the prevalence of MS in women (23.1% for WC vs. 17.6% for BMI), particularly after age 50 (52.5% for WC vs. 41.4% for BMI).
Conclusions: The MS is prevalent among Peruvian Andean Mestizos. Women have a steeper increase in prevalence with aging resulting in a higher prevalence of MS age 50. The use of BMI rather than WC significantly underestimates the prevalence of MS in Andean females, particularly after age 50. This discrepancy may result from differences in the patterns of body fat accumulation in Andean females.