Abstract 4131: Substitution of a Commercial Trans Fatty Acid Free Cooking Oil for a Conventional Partially Hydrogenated Fat Favorably Alters Serum Lipoprotein Profile in Moderately Hyperlipidemic Subjects
In light of the unfavorable effects of partially hydrogenated fats on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors there are efforts to use alternate cooking fats by industry. The efficacy of one approach was assessed by feeding postmenopausal women (n=19; ≥50 y; LDL-C ≥120 mg/dL) diets enriched in either a standard fat used for savory snack preparation or an alternate fat currently used commercially in a double-blind randomized-crossover study. Subjects were not taking drugs known to alter lipid metabolism. All food and drink were provided for two 35-d phases and contained 26% energy (E) fat, 17% E protein, 57% E carbohydrate, 84 mg cholesterol/1000 kcal, 11 g fiber/1000 kcal. Two-thirds of the fat was contributed by partially hydrogenated soybean oil (18%, 35%, 26%, 20%) or corn oil (14%, 28%, 57%, <1%; saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, trans fatty acids, respectively). Fasting serum lipids were measured on three days during the last week of each phase and non-fasting lipids 4 hours after a food challenge. At the end of the intervention periods, total cholesterol (TC) concentrations were 232±24 mg/dL and 214±23 mg/dL and LDL-C concentrations were154±21 mg/dL and 136±17 mg/dL, for the partially hydrogenated soybean oil and corn oil phases, respectively. TC and LDL-C concentrations and TC/HDL-C ratio were 8%, 12% and 10% lower after the corn oil than partially hydrogenated soybean oil phase, respectively (P<0.0001). In the postprandial state, TC, LDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratio were 5%, 11% and 7% lower after the corn oil phase than the partially hydrogenated soybean oil phase, respectively (P<0.05). Serum triglycerides, VLDL-C and HDL-C concentrations were not significantly different between the two diets. These results suggest that the trend of displacing trans fatty acid-containing partially hydrogenated fats with trans fatty acid free fats should be encouraged.
(Support: NIH grant HL 54727).