Abstract 4097: Consuming Snack Chips Fried in Corn Oil Improves Cardiovascular Risk Factors When Substituted For Other Low-Fat or High-Fat Snacks
Snacks can contribute a significant fraction of the diet and therefore have the potential to influence overall health. We hypothesized that replacing low-fat (LF) and high-fat (HF) snacks with snacks rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and low in saturated and trans fatty acids (HPUFA) will result in improvements in cardiovascular health. Thirty-three subjects, age 44.4 ± 2.1y, with mildly elevated LDL-C concentrations, 147.5 ± 2.5 mg/dL, completed a controlled feeding, cross-over study of 3 separate dietary phases of 25 d each. Diets differed in the type of snack. Total fat, polyunsaturated, saturated, and trans fatty acids made up 30.8%, 5.2%, 8.5%, and 1.2% of energy for the LF diet, 37.9, 5.8, 11.4, and 2.7% of energy for the HF diet, and 36.3, 9.7, 8.5, and 0.7% of energy for the HPUFA diet. Snacks provided 12–15% of energy requirements. Each diet reduced LDL-C and TC concentrations but reductions were greater with the LF and the HPUFA diets than the HF diet (LDL-C: 11.8 and 12.5% vs 8.8%, respectively, P = 0.03 and 0.01, respectively; TC: 10.5 and 10.7% vs 7.9%, respectively, P = 0.03 and 0.02, respectively). The HPUFA diet tended to reduce TG concentrations (9.4%, P = 0.06) and the change in TG with the HPUFA diet was greater than that with the LF (P = 0.0008) and HF (P = 0.03) diets. All diets reduced non-HDL-C but the reduction was greater with the LF and the HPUFA diets than the HF diet (10.1 and 11.1% vs 6.9%, respectively, P <0.05 for both). HDL-C was unchanged by the diets. Although the overall diet effect was non-significant (P = 0.08), the odds to having the atherogenic LDL pattern B was 3.5 times greater with consumption of LF compared to HPUFA diet (P = 0.02). There was no effect of diet on high sensitivity C-reactive protein. These data show that choice of snacks can impact cardiovascular health. Consuming snacks rich in polyunsaturated and low in saturated and trans fatty acids instead of high fat, high saturated and trans fatty acid snacks or low-fat snacks leads to improvements in lipid profiles concordant with overall reductions in cardiovascular risk.