Abstract 4025: Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension in the United States 1999–2004
Objective: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) highlighted ethnic differences in the prevalence and control of hypertension in the United States. Hypertension is more common in blacks. We previously reported that the control rate is lowest in Mexican Americans. Here, we analyzed the latest trend in the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican Americans.
Design and Methods: We used NHANES data on 13,578 persons examined in 1999–2004. Hypertension is defined as a mean systolic pressure of 140 mmHg or more, or a mean diastolic pressure of 90 mmHg or more, or the taking of anti-hypertensive medication.
Results: In 2003– 4, the prevalence of hypertension in non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican Americans were 30.3±1.4, 34.4±1.8, and 16.9±3.1 %, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension has not changed significantly in each ethnic group since 1999. However, there has been an increase in awareness among non-Hispanic whites (P<0.02) and an increase in the proportion on treatment among Mexican Americans (P<0.005). Blood pressure control rates have improved significantly, from 33.5±2.3, 28.3±2.7, and 17.4±3.3 % in 1999–2000, to 42.1±2.5, 39.5±3.0, and 33.4±4.0 % in 2003– 4 in non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican Americans, respectively (P≤0.01). In Mexican American men, it has increased from 12.0±2.1 % to 36.4±6.9 % (P<0.001), due to the proportion on treatment increasing from 32.2±4.7 % to 56.1±8.3 % (P=0.01).
Conclusions: In 1999–2004, the prevalence of hypertension has not increased significantly in the United States. The increase in control rates is encouraging, especially among Mexican American men. Public health measures and intensified antihypertensive treatment appear to be effective in improving blood pressure control rates.