Outcomes of Medical Management of Acute Type B Aortic Dissection
Background— Currently, the optimal treatment of acute type B aortic dissection remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to report early clinical outcomes of medical management for acute type B aortic dissection.
Methods and Results— Between January 2001 and March 2005, 129 consecutive patients with the confirmed diagnosis of acute type B aortic dissection were studied. Mean age was 61 years (range, 29 to 94), with 33.3% (43/129) female. Acute type B aortic dissection protocol was instituted with the intent to manage all patients medically. Indications for surgical intervention included rupture, aortic expansion, malperfusion, and intractable pain. All patients were followed-up after discharge. Hospital mortality was 10.1% (13/129), 19% (4/21) when vascular intervention was required, and 8.3% (9/108) when medical management was maintained. Early intervention was required in 21 cases (16.2%), 19 (14.7%) open vascular/aortic cases and 2 cases (1.6%) of percutaneous aortic interventions. Morbidity included rupture (4.7%), stroke (4.7%), paraplegia (8.5%), bowel ischemia (7%), acute renal failure (21%), dialysis requirement (13%), and peripheral ischemia (4.7%). Late vascular-related procedures were performed in 5.2% (6/116) of cases. Univariate risk factors for early mortality were rupture (P<0.0001), need for laparotomy (P<0.008), acute renal failure (P<0.0001), need for dialysis (P<0.0001), and lower extremity ischemia (P<0.0004). The only independent risk factors for hospital mortality by multiple logistic regression was rupture (P<0.0009), and independent risk factors for midterm death were history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P<0.002) and low glomerular filtration rate (<57 mL/min; P<0.0001).
Conclusions— Medical management for acute type B aortic dissection is associated acceptable outcomes. Outcomes of other management strategies, eg, endovascular stenting, for acute type B aortic dissection need to be compared with these results.