Single-Wire Pressure and Flow Velocity Measurement to Quantify Coronary Stenosis Hemodynamics and Effects of Percutaneous Interventions
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Background— Lack of high-fidelity simultaneous measurements of pressure and flow velocity distal to a coronary artery stenosis has hampered the study of stenosis pressure drop–velocity (ΔP-v) relationships in patients.
Methods and Results— A novel 0.014-inch dual-sensor (pressure and Doppler velocity) guidewire was used in 15 coronary lesions to obtain per-beat averages of pressure drop and velocity after an intracoronary bolus of adenosine. ΔP-v relations from resting to maximal hyperemic velocity were constructed before and after stepwise executed percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Before PCI, half of the ΔP-v relations revealed the presence of a compliant stenosis, which was stabilized by angioplasty. Fractional flow reserve (FFR), coronary flow reserve (CFVR), and velocity-based indices of stenosis resistance (h-SRv) and microvascular resistance (h-MRv) at maximal hyperemia were compared. Stepwise PCI significantly lowered h-SRv, with an initial marked reduction in hyperemic pressure drop followed by further gains in velocity. A concomitant significant reduction of h-MRv accounted for half of the gain in velocity after PCI. The average magnitude of absolute incremental hemodynamic changes was highest for h-SRv (56.8±39.2%) compared with CFVR (35.3±34.5%, P<0.005) or FFR (19.5±25.2%, P<0.0001).
Conclusions— ΔP-v relations comprehensively visualize improvements in coronary hemodynamics after PCI. h-SRv is a powerful and sensitive descriptor of the functional gain achieved by PCI, combining information about both pressure gradient and velocity, which are oppositely affected by PCI. Simultaneous assessment of stenosis and microvascular resistance may provide a valuable tool for guidance of PCI.
Received December 30, 2002; de novo received August 18, 2003; revision received October 30, 2003; accepted October 31, 2003.