Shed Membrane Particles From T Lymphocytes Impair Endothelial Function and Regulate Endothelial Protein Expression
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Background— Microparticles (MPs) are membrane vesicles with procoagulant and proinflammatory properties released during cell activation. The present study was designed to dissect the effects evoked by T lymphocyte–derived MPs on vascular function.
Methods and Results— MPs were produced by treatment of the human lymphoid CEM T cell line with actinomycin D or phytohemagglutinin. Incubation of mouse aortic rings with 30 nmol/L MPs resulted in a time-dependent impairment of acetylcholine-induced relaxation of precontracted vessels, with a maximal reduction after 24 hours. MPs also impaired shear stress–induced dilatation of mouse small mesenteric arteries by affecting the nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin but not the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor components of the response. However, neither alteration of calcium signaling in response to agonists nor reduction of cyclooxygenase-1 expression accounted for the impairment of the NO and prostacyclin components of the endothelial response. The effect of MPs was rather because of a decrease in expression of endothelial NO synthase and an overexpression of caveolin-1. Furthermore, lymphocyte-derived MPs from diabetic patients or in vivo circulating MPs from either diabetic or HIV-infected patients reduced endothelial NO synthase expression. Finally, the effects of MPs on endothelial cells were not driven through CD11a/CD18 adhesion molecules or the Fas/FasL pathway.
Conclusions— MPs from T cells induce endothelial dysfunction in both conductance and resistance arteries by alteration of NO and prostacyclin pathways. MPs regulate protein expression for endothelial NO synthase and caveolin-1. These data contribute to a better understanding of the deleterious effects of enhanced circulating MPs observed in disorders with cardiovascular or immune complications.
Received February 5, 2003; de novo received August 26, 2003; revision received November 27, 2003; accepted December 10, 2003.