Cerebral Venous Thrombosis in Children
A Multifactorial Origin
This article requires a subscription to view the full text. If you have a subscription you may use the login form below to view the article. Access to this article can also be purchased.
Background— The present study was performed to assess the association of prothrombotic risk factors and underlying conditions (infections, vascular trauma, immobilization, malignancies, autoimmune diseases, renal diseases, metabolic disorders, obesity, birth asphyxia, cardiac malformations, and use of prothrombotic drugs) with cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) in children.
Methods and Results— From 1995 to 2002, 149 pediatric patients aged newborn to <18 years (median 6 years) with CVT were consecutively enrolled. In patients and in 149 age- and gender-matched children with similar underlying clinical conditions but without CVT, the factor V G1691A mutation, the factor II G20210A variant, lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], protein C, protein S, antithrombin, and antiphospholipid antibodies, as well as associated clinical conditions, were investigated. Eighty-four (56.4%) of the patients had at least 1 prothrombotic risk factor compared with 31 control children (20.8%; P<0.0001). In addition, 105 (70.5%) of 149 patients with CVT presented with an underlying predisposing condition. On univariate analysis, factor V, protein C, protein S, and elevated Lp(a) were found to be significantly associated with CVT. However, in multivariate analysis, only the combination of a prothrombotic risk factor with an underlying condition (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.8 to 8.6), increased Lp(a) (OR 4.1, 95% CI 2.0 to 8.7), and protein C deficiency (OR 11.1, 95% CI 1.2 to 104.4) had independent associations with CVT in the children investigated.
Conclusions— CVT in children is a multifactorial disease that, in the majority of cases, results from a combination of prothrombotic risk factors and/or underlying clinical condition.
Received February 11, 2003; de novo received April 16, 2003; revision received June 23, 2003; accepted June 23, 2003.