Time-Lapse Study With High Speed Video Camera in the Early Embryonic Chick Heart to Visualize a Time Window of Normal and Abnormal Heart Development
The fascinating dynamic process of heart development is experiencing a renaissance in the capturing of the imaginations of developmental biologists and clinicians. However, understanding and visualizing the cardiomorphogenesis from the early heart tube to the 4-chambered organ still remains a complex developmental process that involves the steps of looping, convergence, alignment, wedging, and septation. Time-lapse studies are widely used to present developmental phenomena in compressed motion pictures and provide a useful tool for a better understanding of intricate processes. Cardiac neural crest ablation in embryonic chicks leads to conotruncal anomalies of the heart such as tetralogy of Fallot or double outlet right ventricle as a result of early abnormal cardiac looping. We present here time lapse images in 2-hour periods that show the development of a sham-operated and cardiac neural crest-ablated stage 14/15 chick heart at the early looping stage (Figure 1). The morphologies of the hearts in both embryos in end-diastole and end-systole at stage 17 at the end of filming are depicted in Figure 2. The embryos were filmed every 30 minutes for 10 seconds with a digital high-speed video camera mounted on a stereo-microscope over the course of 10 hours. Images were further processed and edited to create short movie clips (Movie I and Movie II). Here, each 30-minute event shows 1 heart cycle, and 20 events (2400 image frames) demonstrate a continuous short movie of heart development over 10 hours.
Movies I and II are available in an online-only Data Supplement at http://www.circulationaha.org.
The editor of Images in Cardiovascular Medicine is Hugh A. McAllister, Jr, MD, Chief, Department of Pathology, St Luke’s Episcopal Hospital and Texas Heart Institute, and Clinical Professor of Pathology, University of Texas Medical School and Baylor College of Medicine.
Circulation encourages readers to submit cardiovascular images to the Circulation Editorial Office, St Luke’s Episcopal Hospital/Texas Heart Institute, 6720 Bertner Ave, MC1-267, Houston, TX 77030.