Effect of Hypertension on Mortality in Pima Indians
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Background—The effect of hypertension on mortality was examined in 5284 Pima Indians, 1698 of whom had type 2 diabetes at baseline or developed it during follow-up.
Methods and Results—During a median follow-up of 12.2 years (range, 0.01 to 24.8 years), 470 nondiabetic subjects and 488 diabetic subjects died. In the nondiabetic subjects, 45 of the deaths were due to cardiovascular disease, 208 to other natural causes, and 217 to external causes; in the diabetic subjects, 106 of the deaths were due to cardiovascular disease, 85 to diabetic nephropathy, 226 to other natural causes, and 71 to external causes. In the nondiabetic subjects, after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and serum cholesterol concentration in a proportional hazards model, hypertension predicted death from cardiovascular disease (death rate ratio [DRR]=2.8; 95% CI, 1.4 to 5.6; P=0.003). In the diabetic subjects, after additional adjustment for duration of diabetes, plasma glucose concentration, and proteinuria, hypertension strongly predicted deaths from diabetic nephropathy (DRR=3.5; 95% CI, 1.7 to 7.2; P<0.001), but it had little effect on deaths from cardiovascular disease (DRR=1.4; 95% CI, 0.88 to 2.3; P=0.15).
Conclusions—We propose that the weak relationship between hypertension and cardiovascular disease in diabetic Pima Indians is not because of a diminished effect of hypertension on cardiovascular disease in diabetes, but because of a relatively greater effect of hypertension on the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Factors that may account for this finding in Pima Indians include a younger age at onset of type 2 diabetes, a low frequency of heavy smoking, favorable lipoprotein profiles and, possibly, enhanced susceptibility to renal disease.
- cardiovascular diseases
- diabetes mellitus
- Indians, North American
- proportional hazards models
- Received December 14, 1998.
- Revision received March 24, 1999.
- Accepted April 15, 1999.
- Copyright © 1999 by American Heart Association